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Public-Private Partnerships (PPP): an alternative service delivery model for Municipal Abattoirs


Bewket Siraw Adgeh (Dr)

Agricultural Knowledge, Learning, Documentation and Policy Project (AKLDP)/USAID

Tufts University, Africa regional office



Public-private partnership (PPP) is a mechanism for financing public good infrastructure/services through private sector participation. According to World Bank it is defined as “a long-term contract between a private party and a government entity, for providing a public asset or service, in which the private party bears significant risk and management responsibility, and remuneration is linked to performance”. This paper describes the current challenges facing Municipal Abattoirs in Ethiopia, and discusses how PPP can be used to build new and better abattoirs, and improve abattoir management and performance.

Key words: Public good, Municipal Abattoirs and Public-private partnerships 



Examining Alternative Livelihoods for Transformation and Improved Resilience in Pastoral areas with the case to Afar


Dr. Daniel Temesgen


Tufts University



Approximately 85% percent of the Afar population practice pastoralism. The remaining 15% of the population practice agro-pastoralism and diversified livelihood strategies (Afar Atlas 2014). Climate change affects pastoralists differently. Since they occupy climatically marginal areas they face unique challenges that may come in the shape of extreme climatic shocks, such as frequent drought and flooding. Over the last decades, the pastoral communities have moved from drought-triggered food insecurity to chronic livelihood insecurity and dependency on food aid (Lautze and Maxwell, 2007). As a result of a range of complex factors such as population growth, loss of prime grazing lands, and increased commoditization, the Afar are more vulnerable than at any time in recent history. Pastoralists are challenged to adapt their livelihood pathways in order to maintain their adaptive capacities and resilience to shocks and stresses. Recently, the bulk of the literature argues that pastoralists have faced an increasing number of critical challenges that fuel the debate on the decline of pastoralism (Markakis, 1993, 2003; Scholz, 2008) and its capacity to adapt (Davies and Bennett, 2007; Mortimore 2009; UN OCHA 2007).

The objective of the study is to examine main types of diversified and alternative livelihoods that have evolved in Afar pastoral area, and analyses the drivers of these changes. It also aims to create insight on how options for diversification and alternative livelihoods changed over time?

The study was undertaken in seven sample woredas of Afar region and employed standard qualitative research approaches and methodologies that include secondary and primary data collection. Qualitative data analysis and Non-parametric statistics analysis is used.The study found that traditional system has evolved in to three major paths depending on the wealth status of the households. These paths are (i) pastoralism with commercialization livestock; (ii) keeping livestock with diversification, and (iii) shifting to non-livestock alternative livelihoods. The study result showed that pastoralismis associated mainly with wealthier group and larger herd owners. The poor households pursue livestock keeping with diversified livelihood activities with the aim of herd building and possibly to return to pastoralism. A minority among the poor households pursue non-livestock-related alternate livelihood activities of with no desire to return to pastoralism but live in peri-urban or urban areas. These have the potential for transformation.


Key words: pastoralism, alternative livelihoods, paths, transformation